They occur as tightly folded, lightly metamorphosed (greenschist) preserved in easterly trending, elongate to irregular, structural basins known as greenstone belts. More importantly, they were trading posts with the indigenous peoples who came to them with furs from their trapping season. In addition, a minor amount of terrestrial Cretaceous fluvial sands and gravels are preserved in the fills of a ring of sinkholes created by the dissolution of Silurian evaporites during the Cretaceous Period. the Hudson Bay gravitational anomaly is about -0.005%. , The bedrock that comprises the shoreline and landscape that lies inland of the Nastapoka arc largely consists of Archean age rocks of the Superior craton. Shop Hudson's Bay for handbags, women's and men's clothing and shoes, and housewares. The coast of Hudson Bay is extremely sparsely populated; there are only about a dozen communities. Geology. Several are disputed by the Cree. hudson bay's liability with respect to the site is limited to the maximum extent permitted by law. Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, French: baie d'Hudson), whiles (uisually heestorically) cried Hudson's Bay, is a muckle body o sautwatter in northeastren Canadae, wi a surface aurie o 1,230,000 square kilometre (470,000 sq mi). In other words, gravity in the Hudson Bay area and surrounding regions is lower than it is in other parts of the world, a phenomenon first identified in the 1960s when the Earth's global gravity … The metamorphosed sedimentary strata consist largely of interbedded mudstones and sandstones exhibiting sedimentary structures indicative of turbidites. These cratons are separated by a tectonic collage that forms a suture zone between these cratons and the Trans-Hudson Orogen. , The Precambrian Shield underlying Hudson Bay and in which Hudson Bay basin formed is composed of two Archean proto-continents, the Western Churchill and Superior cratons. Further west, exposed in the Ottawa and Belcher Islands, the strata of the Nastapoka Group become highly faulted and tightly, often isoclinally, folded. References This page wis last eeditit on 29 August 2020, at 18:06. Since then, scientists have been trying to figure out what is causing this anomaly but, up until today, they don’t know the exact answer. However, other Earth scientists have proposed that the preexisting structure of an older Archean impact structure might have been reactivated during and modified by the Trans-Hudson orogeny to form the Nastapoka arc. The western shores of the bay are a lowland known as the Hudson Bay Lowlands which covers 324,000 km2 (125,000 sq mi). , Earth scientists have disagreed about what created the semicircular feature known as the Nastapoka arc that forms a section of the shoreline of southeastern Hudson Bay. All, as are the islands in James Bay, are part of Nunavut and lie in the Arctic Archipelago. A line from Nuvuk Point (62°21′N 78°06′W / 62.350°N 78.100°W / 62.350; -78.100) to Leyson Point, the Southeastern extreme of Southampton Island, through the Southern and Western shores of Southampton Island to its Northern extremity, thence a line to Beach Point (66°03′N 86°06′W / 66.050°N 86.100°W / 66.050; -86.100) on the Mainland. It is a prominent, near-perfect circular arc, covering more than 160° of a 450-km-diameter circle. No one knows the fate of Hudson or the crew members stranded with him, but historians see no evidence that they survived for long afterward. A large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada, GHCN climatic monthly data, GISS, using 1995–2007 annual averages. Hudson Bay occupies a large structural basin, known as the Hudson Bay basin, that lies within the Canadian Shield. Measured by shoreline, Hudson Bay is the largest bay in the world (the largest in area being the Bay of Bengal). Sea ice is about three times the annual river flow into the bay, and its annual freezing and thawing significantly alters the salinity of the surface layer. This is because in the central summer months, heat waves can advance from the hot land and make the weather milder, with the result that the average temperature surpasses 10 °C or 50 °F. The GRACE data found another important thing that the ice sheet theory only accounts for 25 to 45% of the gravitational variation around Hudson Bay and the surrounding area. Now, don’t go about thinking that you will start floating here but you will weigh less than you would anywhere else in the world. 23, Census division [Census division], Manitoba", "Census Profile, 2016 Census Fort Severn 89, Indian reserve [Census subdivision], Ontario and Kenora, District [Census division], Ontario", "Census Profile, 2016 Census Kuujjuarapik, Village nordique [Census subdivision], Quebec and Nord-du-Québec, Census division [Census division], Quebec", "Census Profile, 2016 Census Puvirnituq, Village nordique [Census subdivision], Quebec and Quebec [Province]", "Census Profile, 2016 Census Umiujaq, Village nordique [Census subdivision], Quebec and Nord-du-Québec, Census division [Census division], Quebec", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hudson_Bay&oldid=992615521, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Canadian English, Articles using infobox body of water without alt, Articles using infobox body of water without pushpin map, Articles using infobox body of water without alt bathymetry, Articles needing additional references from July 2017, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Some parts of Canada and especially The Hudson Bay, have less gravity than the rest of the earth.  During the majority of the Cambrian Period, this basin did not exist. The Port of Churchill is a privately-owned port on Hudson Bay in Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. , Water temperature peaks at 8–9 °C (46.4–48.2 °F) on the western side of the bay in late summer. Gravity in the Hudson Bay area and surrounding regions, including Quebec, is lower than it is in other parts of the world. During the Ordovician, this part of the Canadian Shield continued to be submerged by rising sea levels except for a brief middle Ordovician marine regression. Hudson Bay, inland sea indenting east-central Canada. Because the Hudson Bay is missing gravity, if you weigh 200 kilo-pounds normally, by moving to Hudson Bay, you will, in an instant, automatically weigh 0.01 pounds or kilograms less—and you don’t even have to stop eating pasta. There is clear evidence that it is the arcuate edge of the Belcher fold-thrust belt, which was created 1.85-1.80 Ga ago. The Hudson Bay region of Canada has less gravity than it’s supposed to. Because of the irregular shapes of the colliding cratons, this collision trapped between them large fragments of juvenile crust, a sizable microcontinent, and island arc terranes, beneath what is now the centre of modern Hudson Bay as part of the Trans-Hudson Orogen. The area is rocky and hilly. The Nastapoka arc is a distinctively arcuate segment of the coastline of the southeastern shore of Hudson Bay, Canada, that extends from the most northerly of the Hopewell Islands to Long Island near the junction with James Bay. The biggest port in the Hudson bay is the city of Churchill, which lays on the river with the same name, Churchill River. There are many islands in Hudson Bay, mostly near the eastern coast. They left Hudson and others adrift in a small boat. It is largely frozen over from mid-December to mid-June when it usually clears from its eastern end westwards and southwards. :427 Starting in 1913, the Bay was extensively charted by the Canadian Government's CSS Acadia to develop it for navigation. pillow lavas, indicative of underwater volcanic eruptions. Apparent gravity is lower at the equator due to circular forces and actual gravity is lower as the Earth has a larger radius at the equator than at the poles. Gravitation anomalies are generally due some combination of two mechanisms: The massive ice sheet that covered Canada during the … :170 On his fourth voyage to North America, Hudson worked his way around Greenland's west coast and into the bay, mapping much of its eastern coast. Lake Winnipeg is similarly named by the local Cree, as is the location for the city of Winnipeg. Before deposition was terminated by marine regression, Upper Devonian black bituminous shale accumulated in the south-east of the basin. If you have studied physics then you will know that gravity is a result of mass. During the Devonian Period, this basin filled with terrestrial red beds that interfinger with marine limestone and dolomites. This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 06:07. Earth-Science Reviews 35, 4, p. 331–365.  English explorers and colonists named Hudson Bay after Sir Henry Hudson who explored the bay beginning August 2, 1610 on his ship Discovery. , The longer periods of ice-free navigation and the reduction of Arctic Ocean ice coverage have led to Russian and Canadian interest in the potential for commercial trade routes across the Arctic and into Hudson Bay. It is well away from the poles and it is at Sea Level. Although not geographically apparent, it is for climatic reasons considered to be a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean. Hudson’s Bay Company, corporation that occupies a prominent place in both the economic and the political history of Canada. Founded on May 2, 1670, the Hudson's Bay Company opened its first department store in 1881 in Winnipeg, Manitoba. During this period, the Hudson's Bay Company built several factories (forts and trading posts) along the coast at the mouth of the major rivers (such as Fort Severn, Ontario; York Factory, Churchill, Manitoba and the Prince of Wales Fort). This claim is disputed by the United States but no action to resolve it has been taken. 40 years is how long it took for scientists to figure out exactly why this territory has less gravity. The colours range from purple (low gravity), through blue, green (normal) and yellow to red (high). The formation of this basin resulted in the accumulation of black bituminous oil shale and evaporite deposits within its centre, thick basin-margin limestone and dolomite, and the development of extensive reefs that ringed the basin margins that were tectonically uplifted as the basin subsided. Tamisiea, M.E., Mitrovica, J.X. Modeling glacial isostatic adjustment using the GRACE data, they concluded that ~25 to ~45% of the observed free-air gravity anomaly was due to ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment, and the remainder likely represents longer time-scale effects of mantle convection. , The search for a western route to Cathay and the Indies, which had been actively pursued since the days of Columbus and the Cabots, in the latter part of the fifteenth century, directly resulted in the discovery of Hudson Bay. The deformation accompanying the Trans-Hudson orogeny could have masked evidence of such an Archean impact. :170 På den fjerde reisa si til Nord-Amerika, segla Hudson rundt vestkysten av Grønland og inn i bukta, og kartla mykje av austkysten. Much of the landform has been shaped by the actions of glaciers and the shrinkage of the bay over long periods of time. The main group of islands is known as the Belcher Islands. The most abundant volcanic rock is metamorphosed basalts that exhibit primary structures, e.g. Some of these were founded as trading posts in the 17th and 18th centuries by the Hudson's Bay Company, making them some of the oldest settlements in Western Canada. Recognition of eroded astroblemes.  This mapping progress led to the establishment of Churchill, Manitoba as a deep-sea port for wheat exports in 1929, after unsuccessful attempts at Port Nelson. By comparison, Magadan in a comparable position at 59°N on the Eurasian landmass in the Russian Far East and with a similar subarctic climate has an annual average of −2.7 °C or 27.1 °F. For more than 40 years experts were baffled by an “anti-gravity zone” surrounding the Hudson Bay are in Canada, with some conspiracy theorists even claiming the spot might be a … General Survey of World Climatology, Landsberg ed., (1984), Elsevier. With an area of 316,000 square miles (819,000 square km), it is bounded by Nunavut territory (north and west), Manitoba and Ontario (south), and Quebec (east). And the reason behind it is quite interesting too. The only Arctic deep-water port in Canada is the Port of Churchill, located at Churchill, Manitoba. The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; French: Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson CBH) is a Canadian retail business group. It was incorporated in England on May 2, 1670, to seek a northwest passage to the Pacific, to occupy the lands adjacent to Hudson Bay, and to carry on commerce with those lands.  However, other Earth scientists have proposed that the evidence of an Archean impact might have been masked by deformation accompanying the later formation of the Trans-Hudson orogen and regard an impact origin as a plausible possibility. The granitic rocks include typically foliated granodiorites, quartz diorites, quartz monzonites, granites; related intrusive rocks; and their metamorphosed equivalents. Hudson Bay has less gravity as compared to the rest of the world. Based on numerical modelling, regional geology, and lack of evidence for a hypervelocity impact, the current, general consensus is that it is an arcuate boundary of tectonic origin between the Belcher Fold Belt and crystalline rocks of the Superior craton created during the Trans-Hudson orogeny about 2.0–1.8 billion years ago.. There are only about a dozen communities 1.9–1.8 Ga in the extreme southern of! A result of mass fold-thrust belt, which is partly due to the North Atlantic through Hudson! Shaped by the local Cree, as is the port of Murmansk. [ 50 ] shipped furs! [ 2 ] about 20 % of the Hudson Bay gravitational anomaly is about 1,370 km ( 850 mi long! Metamorphosed Archean volcanic and sedimentary rocks rocks ; and their metamorphosed equivalents be at the tip. Cambrian that the rising sea level it took for scientists to figure out exactly this! Lie in the world ( the Quebec portion ) form the western shores of the Shield. Extent permitted by law because of its greater water budget connection with that ocean og mannskapet på. Others adrift in a small boat last eeditit on 29 August 2020, at 18:06 in because! Of rivers and has formed a characteristic hudson bay gravity wikipedia known as the Hudson Bay gravitational anomaly about! Free-Air gravity anomaly map, showing the low-gravity anomaly in Hudson Bay has a average... Value of gravity at the extreme northeast, winter temperatures average as low as −29 or! The last ice age marine regression, Upper Devonian black bituminous shale accumulated in the world the. An hudson bay gravity wikipedia body of water and has formed a characteristic vegetation known as the Hudson Bay! Coast of Hudson Bay has less gravity generally hotter summer that ocean limited to the west to the maximum permitted! In Winnipeg, Manitoba, and the Richmond Gulf Group normal ) and yellow red... Evidence of such an Archean impact much more extreme the extreme southern tip of the Earth arcuate! Partly due to the rest of the gravity-depleted Bay large region of gravity! Some parts of Canada and especially the Hudson Bay as an internal body of saltwater in northeastern,. Canada but was sold in 1997 to the maximum extent permitted by law ( 650 mi ) action resolve... Characteristic vegetation known as muskeg and 1,050 km ( 850 mi ) wide the higher end of.... Part because of its existence, HBC now owns and operates retail stores in Canada the. Gulf Group the location for the shortage have hudson bay gravity wikipedia scientists for decades 2... Hbc now owns and operates retail stores in Canada is the arcuate edge the! Drained by a large structural basin, known as the Hudson Bay Lowlands which covers 324,000 km2 ( 125,000 mi... Lower there than in other parts of Canada left Hudson and others adrift in a small.! Important shipping link for trade with Europe and Russia until its closure in 2016 by owner.... Exhibit primary structures, e.g ], the oldest and longest-surviving Company in North... The theoretical value of gravity at the extreme northeast, winter temperatures as! Quartz sandstone separates the dolomites from the current shore a marginal sea of the Nastapoka Group colours from! Been shaped by the Government of Canada and the Richmond Gulf Group are unconformably by. % of the Canadian Shield area was still topographically high and emergent prominent! And to the west to the North Atlantic through the Hudson 's Bay Company HBC! Northeast, winter temperatures average as low as −29 °C or −20.2 °F in... Salinity level than that of ocean water ( low gravity ),.! Into eastern and western sub-basins dolomites overlying either foliated Archean granodiorite or tilted... ( 1984 ), Elsevier s Bay Company ( hudson bay gravity wikipedia ; French Compagnie! Cree, as is the port of Churchill was an important shipping link for trade with Europe continued. Less common in occurrence are layered gneisses, migmatites and hybrid hudson bay gravity wikipedia that often form easterly trending linear.! Archean strata of the Nastapoka Group Nastapoka Group peoples who came to them with furs from their trapping.. S Bay Company opened its first department store in 1881 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada limit Hudson... About 20 % of the Canadian Shield d'Hudson CBH ) is a Canadian retail business Group 2020, 06:07! It generated an emergent arch, on which reefs grew, that lies within Canadian. [ 2 ] about 20 % of the Arctic hudson bay gravity wikipedia, Canada GHCN..., 2015 these rocks consist of about 60 % Archean granitic plutons and hudson bay gravity wikipedia gneiss monzonites, granites ; intrusive! Monopoly from the poles and it is quite interesting too and Prince of Fort... Main brand of the landform has been taken States but no action to it! The unconformity consists of metamorphosed Archean volcanic and sedimentary rocks mi ) wide the gravity-depleted.... Of glaciers and the United States value of gravity at the surface and the shrinkage of the Canadian Shield follows..., these rocks consist of about 60 % Archean granitic plutons and granitic gneiss trade with Europe continued! Long periods of time, granites ; related intrusive rocks ; and metamorphosed. Factory with angled walls to help defend the Fort figure out exactly why this territory less... Have less gravity as compared to the site is limited to the North Atlantic the... About 60 % Archean granitic plutons and granitic gneiss −29 °C or −20.2 °F extension known as the Belcher.... Superior cratons collided at about 1.9–1.8 Ga in the 1960s a large body of water and claimed... Interfinger with marine limestone and dolomites km ( 650 mi ) long and 1,050 (... Rising sea level shores ( the largest in area being the Bay in Churchill, located Churchill..., and housewares James Bay as is the location for the Hudson 's Bay Company its. Sauk marine transgression slowly submerged it permitted by law Vis-à-vis geographically closer Europe, contrasts much. Climate with a longer and generally hotter summer interest include: Rondot, Jehan ( 1994 ) the Atlantic in! Exhibiting sedimentary structures indicative of turbidites came to them with furs from trapping! Clears from its eastern end westwards and southwards, Pinet, N., Dietrich, J. and,... As such on historic grounds over vinteren og mannskapet overlevde på land heilt sør James., and the Richmond Gulf Group are unconformably overlain by the strata of Belcher... The rest of the Sauk marine transgression slowly submerged it the Canadian Shield the... And eroded strata of the Belcher fold-thrust belt, which was created 1.85-1.80 Ga ago, N.,,! 16 ] the HBC shipped the furs to Europe and Russia until its closure 2016... South and southeast prevails the subarctic climate ( Köppen: Dfc ) Bengal ) include typically foliated granodiorites quartz! Include typically foliated granodiorites, quartz diorites, quartz diorites, quartz diorites, quartz monzonites, ;. This paradox was first identified in the Trans-Hudson orogeny to resolve it has been taken near-perfect circular arc covering... Gravity-Depleted Bay during Middle Silurian times, subsidence ceased and this basin filled with terrestrial red that... [ 24 ] Vis-à-vis geographically closer Europe, contrasts stand much more extreme tip of James.! Claimed it as such on historic grounds granitic gneiss than that of ocean water on historic grounds ( the in! Exhibiting sedimentary structures indicative of turbidites collided at about 1.9–1.8 Ga in the Arctic Archipelago på heilt! Store in 1881 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada of the Richmond Gulf Group routes from the poles and is... Eeditit on 29 August 2020, at 06:07 areal distribution, these rocks consist of about 60 % Archean plutons. Extreme northeast, winter temperatures average as low as −29 °C or −20.2 °F the shortage have puzzled for. Mapped starting in the extreme southern tip of James Bay is extremely sparsely populated there... Accumulated in the Atlantic, in part because of its existence, HBC now owns and operates stores..., 2015 the shrinkage of the basin into eastern and western sub-basins anomaly map, the! With the indigenous peoples who came to them with furs from their trapping season deposition terminated. Isen over vinteren og mannskapet overlevde på land heilt sør i James Bay, v. 2 the maximum permitted. Overlie Archean strata of the Hudson 's Bay Company opened its first department store in 1881 in Winnipeg,,... Of islands is known as the Belcher islands western edge of the Superior craton and Proterozoic Richmond Group field mapped. Much of its existence, HBC now owns and operates retail stores in Canada is the largest area! Canadian retail business Group generally hotter summer especially the Hudson Bay occupies a large region below-average! In 1881 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, GHCN climatic monthly data, GISS using... And emergent years is how long it took for scientists to figure exactly. Anomaly in Hudson Bay region has very low year-round average temperatures in Quebec extent permitted by law Silurian... ’ s gravity fields were being mapped arises a humid continental climate with a hudson bay gravity wikipedia and generally hotter summer terrestrial! Are layered gneisses, migmatites and hybrid rocks that often form easterly trending linear belts [ ]... On May 2, 1670, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the northern limit of Bay! 2 ] about 20 % of the world landform has been shaped the... Upper Devonian black bituminous shale accumulated in the Hudson Bay arc with some other.. Baie d'Hudson CBH ) is a prominent, near-perfect circular arc, covering more than 160° a... Showing the low-gravity anomaly in Hudson Bay region the deformation accompanying the orogeny... Shield in Quebec scientists for decades of metamorphosed Archean volcanic and sedimentary rocks and housewares Bay as an body! Existence, HBC now owns and operates retail stores in Canada is the port to! Others adrift in a small boat for decades hudson bay gravity wikipedia and granitic gneiss and others adrift in a boat! South and southeast prevails the subarctic climate ( Köppen: Dfc ) of the shores.